Resistance targets for each zone:
- Simple area open to the public or vandal proof: the walls, frames and glazing must withstand a large number of mechanical stress and must also comply with the safety standards of establishments.
- Intrusion proof: the frames and glazing are suitable to withstand daily aggressions by day, and at night to protect areas equipped with office equipment, IT equipment, and various documents.
- Bullet-proof: the walls, frames and windows resist attacks by pistols and various rifles.
- Technical area equipped with safes and automatic devices: the walls and doors resist attempts to enter the area using electrical and thermal tools.
- Blast Proof: risk of Atex technical nature (chemicals, petroleum, etc.) or terrorist.
It is important to standardize the expected level of protection at the level of all the perimeter walls, doors, windows and frames incorporating the glazing.
1/Intrusion Proof according to European Standards
. Performed tests for glazing
The first levels rather refer to a level of vandal or fall. They are defined from the resistance of a fall of a 4.11 kg ball.
|Catégorie||Hauteur de chute||Nombre d'impacts|
The highest levels correspond to a intrusion proof level. They are defined from tests of resistance of a sledgehammer blow and 2 kg of ax blow to carry out a hole of passage of a man of 400 mm * 400 mm in the center of the glazing.
|Catégorie||Nb impact mini(marteau)||Energie (marteau)||Nb impact mini(hache)||Energie (hache)||Nb total coups|
|P6 B||12||350+/-15||18||350+/-15||30 à 50|
|P7 B||12||350+/-15||39||350+/-15||51 à 70|
Minimum requirements for glazing tested according to EN356. This certifies that the glazing is in conformity and resists according to the different levels from P1 to P8 (EN356).
|Classe résistance fenêtre, porte (EN 1627)||1||2||3||4||5||6|
|Classe résistance vitrage (EN 356)||Pas d'exigence||P4 A||P5 A||P6 B||P7 B||P8 B|
.For doors and windows by extrapolation and consistency for the wall
One of the goals is to resist to categories of tools classified in ascending order (small tools from CR1 to CR3 - heavy tools from CR4 to CR6). Modulo Protect as an integrator provides integrated solutions:
- Mprotect CR2 to CR6 walls validated according to "human tests" EN1630
- Doors and windows or grilles validated according to "human tests" EN1630 + static tests EN1628 + dynamic tests EN1629
The first levels refer rather to a level of vandalism. The higher levels correspond to an anti-burglary level and are defined on the basis of stress tests.
|Category||Burglar||Tools||Contact time||Test time|
Violent physical, kick, shoulder, tearing, screwdriver 260
|CR2||Occasional||Idem + simple tools (screwdriver, pliers, saw)||3 min||15 min|
|CR3||Medium||Idem + additional screwdrivers, crowbar, hammer||5 min||20 min|
|CR4||Experimented||Idem + heavy hammer, ax, scissors, electric drill||10 min||30 min|
|CR5||Experimented||Idem + power tools (jigsaw, angle grinder, 650W drill)||15 min||40 min|
|CR6||Experimented||Idem + weight 3.5Kg, steel wedge, powerful electric tools (grinder, impact hammer)||20 min||50 min|
2/ Bullet Proof according to European standards
Summary of Standard EN 1522 and EN 1063 concerning the ballistic resistance of glazing and door or window frames. For more details, refer to the table indicating firing distances and types of ammunition.
|Category||Weapon type||Caliber||Structure||Shooting distance (m)||Speed (m / s)|
|FB2||Automatic gun||9mm Luger||Steel jacketed ball|
|FB3||Revolver||375 Magnum||Steel jacketed ball|
|FB4||Revolver||44 Rem.Magnum||Steel jacketed ball|
|AK47||Kalashnikov||7.62*39||Steel jacketed ball|
Lead core (level 2)
|FB5||Assault rifle||5.56*45||Copper alloy|
Penetrating steel mass
Soft lead core
Hard steel core
|FSG||Hunting rifle||12/70||Hard lead pellet||10||420|
3/ Blast Proof
Explosions can be classified according to the speed of the wave they generate:
A detonation: it occurs when the flame front exceeds the speed of sound and therefore generates a shock wave. It is an explosion of short duration (in the range of 5 to 20 ms) and occurs, for example, when using a detonator or an explosive.
A deflagration: it occurs when the decomposition front moves at a speed lower than the speed of sound in the local environment. It is a long lasting explosion, up to 200 ms. This type of explosion is often found in industrial settings when gas clouds ignite.
The explosion generates an incident pressure (Pi) and when it encounters an obstacle, it generates a so-called reflected overpressure peak with a reflection coefficient (Cr) which is between 2 and 3 times the incident pressure. After the shock wave has passed, there is a lower depression at the reflected pressure (Pr), but of longer duration.
Standard NF EN 13123 / 124-1:
It concerns doors, windows, closures
Requirements and classification relating to tests carried out with a blast tube
|RESISTANCE CLASS||MAXIMUM PRESSURE (bar)||POSITIVE PULSE (bar.ms)||DURATION (ms)|
Standard NF EN 13123 / 124-2:
It concerns doors, windows and closures
Requirements and classification relating to tests carried out outdoors
|RESISTANCE CLASS (S / NS)||LOAD MASS (KG)||DISTANCE (M)||REFLECTED PRESSURE (BAR)||POSITIVE PULSE (BAR.MS)|
These tables show the existing strength class levels, as well as the corresponding maximum pressure (for the first table) and the corresponding reflected pressure (for the second table).
. Structural calculations
For the structure calculation, it is important to define among these 3 damage levels
Damage to localized elements
The building can be used, but repairs are necessary to restore the structural integrity of the envelope
The total cost of repairs is moderate
The element has no visible damage
General damage to the elements
The building should not be occupied until it is repaired
The total cost of repairs is significant
The element has some permanent deformation
It is generally repairable, although the replacement may be more economical and aesthetic
Key elements of the structure may have lost their structural integrity and building collapse may occur due to environmental conditions (wind, snow, rain)
Building should not be occupied
The total cost of repairs is close to the cost of replacing the building
The element is not deteriorated, but it has permanent and significant deformations